1. Fracture management

 

Fracture management can be divided into nonoperative and operative techniques. The nonoperative approach consists of a closed reduction if required, followed by a period of immobilization with casting or splinting. Closed reduction is needed if the fracture is significantly displaced or angulated. Pediatric fractures are generally much more tolerant of nonoperative management, owing to their significant remodeling potential.

2. Arthritis

Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis causes cartilage, the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.

Uric acid crystals, which form when there’s too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.

Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

3. Sports/ ligament Injuries

Medically known as ACL injury, a tear or sprain of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). One of the major ligaments in the knee. ACL injuries most commonly occur during sports that involve sudden stops or changes in direction, jumping and landing, such as long jump, basketball, football and downhill skiing.

Many people hear or feel a “pop” in the knee when an ACL injury occurs. Your knee may swell, feel unstable and become too painful to bear weight.

Depending on the severity of your ACL injury, treatment may include rest and rehabilitation exercises to help you regain strength and stability or surgery to replace the torn ligament, followed by rehabilitation. A proper training program may help reduce the risk of an ACL injury.

4. Backache and Spondylitis

Back pain is a top medical complaint. It’s also a leading cause of missed work. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, virtually all adults will seek attention for back pain at some point in their lives. The American Chiropractic Association reports that Americans spend about $50 billion a year on treating back pain.

There are many possible causes of low back pain. Usually it’s caused by trauma from a sudden strain on the spine. But you should be aware that back pain can also signal a more serious condition called ankylosing spondylitis.

5. High Tibial Osteotomy

A high tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure that realigns the knee joint. For some patients who have knee arthritis, this surgery can delay or prevent the need for a partial or total knee replacement by preserving damaged joint tissue.

6. Tumors and Ganglion Cyst

A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells that serves no purpose. A benign tumor is not a malignant tumor, which is cancer. It does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body the way cancer can. In most cases, the outlook with benign tumors is very good.

A ganglion cyst is a small sac of fluid that forms over a joint or tendon (tissue that connects muscle to bone). Inside the cyst is a thick, sticky, clear, colorless, jellylike material. Depending on the size, cysts may feel firm or spongy.